Unsafe Swift: Using Pointers And Interacting With C

Ray Fix

UnsafeSwift-featureBy default, Swift is memory safe, which means that it prevents direct access to memory and makes sure everything is initialized before you use it. The key phrase is “by default.” Unsafe Swift lets you get directly at memory through pointers if you need to.

This tutorial will take you on a whirlwind tour of the so-called “unsafe” features of Swift. The term “unsafe” sometimes causes confusion. It doesn’t mean that you are writing dangerously bad code that might not work. Rather, it means you are writing code that you need to be extra careful about because the compiler is limited in how it can help you.

You may find yourself needing to use these features if you interoperate with an unsafe language such as C, need to gain additional runtime performance, or simply want to explore internals. While this is an advanced topic, you should be able to follow along if you have reasonable Swift competency. C experience will help, but is not required.

Getting Started

This tutorial consists of three playgrounds. In the first playground, you’ll create several short snippets that explore memory layout and use unsafe pointers. In the second playground, you will wrap a low-level C API that performs streaming data compression with a Swifty interface. In the final playground, you will create a platform independent alternative to arc4random that, while using unsafe Swift, hides that detail from users.

Start by creating a new playground, calling it UnsafeSwift. You can select any platform, since all the code in this tutorial is platform-agnostic. Make sure to import the Foundation framework.

Memory Layout

Sample memory

Unsafe Swift works directly with the memory system. Memory can be visualized as series of boxes (billions of boxes, actually), each with a number inside it. Each box has a unique memory address associated with it. The smallest addressable unit of storage is a byte, which usually consists of eight bits. Eight bit bytes can store values from 0-255. Processors can also efficiently access words of memory which are typically more than one byte. On a 64-bit system, for example, a word is 8 bytes or 64 bits long.

Swift has a MemoryLayout facility that tells you about the size and alignment of things in your program.

Add the following to your playground:

MemoryLayout<Int>.size          // returns 8 (on 64-bit)
MemoryLayout<Int>.alignment     // returns 8 (on 64-bit)
MemoryLayout<Int>.stride        // returns 8 (on 64-bit)
 
MemoryLayout<Int16>.size        // returns 2
MemoryLayout<Int16>.alignment   // returns 2
MemoryLayout<Int16>.stride      // returns 2
 
MemoryLayout<Bool>.size         // returns 1
MemoryLayout<Bool>.alignment    // returns 1
MemoryLayout<Bool>.stride       // returns 1
 
MemoryLayout<Float>.size        // returns 4
MemoryLayout<Float>.alignment   // returns 4
MemoryLayout<Float>.stride      // returns 4
 
MemoryLayout<Double>.size       // returns 8
MemoryLayout<Double>.alignment  // returns 8
MemoryLayout<Double>.stride     // returns 8

MemoryLayout<Type> is a generic type evaluated at compile time that determines the size, alignment and stride of each specified Type. The number returned is in bytes. For example, an Int16 is two bytes in size and has an alignment of two as well. That means it has to start on even addresses (evenly divisible by two).

So, for example, it is legal to allocate an Int16 at address 100, but not 101 because it violates the required alignment. When you pack a bunch of Int16s together, they pack together at an interval of stride. For these basic types the size is the same as the stride.

Next, look at the layout of some user defined structs and by adding the following to the playground:

struct EmptyStruct {}
 
MemoryLayout<EmptyStruct>.size      // returns 0
MemoryLayout<EmptyStruct>.alignment // returns 1
MemoryLayout<EmptyStruct>.stride    // returns 1
 
struct SampleStruct {
  let number: UInt32
  let flag: Bool
}
 
MemoryLayout<SampleStruct>.size       // returns 5
MemoryLayout<SampleStruct>.alignment  // returns 4
MemoryLayout<SampleStruct>.stride     // returns 8

The empty structure has a size of zero. It can be located at any address since alignment is one. (i.e. All numbers are evenly divisible by one.) The stride, curiously, is one. This is because each EmptyStruct that you create has to have a unique memory address despite being of zero size.

For SampleStruct, the size is five but the stride is eight. This is driven by its alignment requirements to be on 4-byte boundaries. Given that, the best Swift can do is pack at an interval of eight bytes.

Next add:

class EmptyClass {}
 
MemoryLayout<EmptyClass>.size      // returns 8 (on 64-bit)
MemoryLayout<EmptyClass>.stride    // returns 8 (on 64-bit)
MemoryLayout<EmptyClass>.alignment // returns 8 (on 64-bit)
 
class SampleClass {
  let number: Int64 = 0
  let flag: Bool = false
}
 
MemoryLayout<SampleClass>.size      // returns 8 (on 64-bit)
MemoryLayout<SampleClass>.stride    // returns 8 (on 64-bit)
MemoryLayout<SampleClass>.alignment // returns 8 (on 64-bit)

Classes are reference types so MemoryLayout reports the size of a reference: eight bytes.

If you want to explore memory layout in greater detail, see this excellent talk by Mike Ash.

Pointers

A pointer encapsulates a memory address. Types that involve direct memory access get an “unsafe” prefix so the pointer type is called UnsafePointer. While the extra typing may seem annoying, it lets you and your reader know that you are dipping into non-compiler checked access of memory that when not done correctly could lead to undefined behavior (and not just a predictable crash).

The designers of Swift could have just created a single UnsafePointer type and made it the C equivalent of char *, which can access memory in an unstructured way. They didn’t. Instead, Swift contains almost a dozen pointer types, each with different capabilities and purposes. Using the most appropriate pointer type communicates intent better, is less error prone, and helps keep you away from undefined behavior.

Unsafe Swift pointers use a very predictable naming scheme so that you know what the traits of the pointer are. Mutable or immutable, raw or typed, buffer style or not. In total there is a combination of eight of these.

unsafe swift pointers

In the following sections, you’ll learn more about these pointer types.

Using Raw Pointers

Add the following code to your playground:

// 1
let count = 2
let stride = MemoryLayout<Int>.stride
let alignment = MemoryLayout<Int>.alignment
let byteCount = stride * count
 
// 2
do {
  print("Raw pointers")
 
  // 3
  let pointer = UnsafeMutableRawPointer.allocate(bytes: byteCount, alignedTo: alignment)
  // 4
  defer {
    pointer.deallocate(bytes: byteCount, alignedTo: alignment)
  }
 
  // 5
  pointer.storeBytes(of: 42, as: Int.self)
  pointer.advanced(by: stride).storeBytes(of: 6, as: Int.self)
  pointer.load(as: Int.self)
  pointer.advanced(by: stride).load(as: Int.self)
 
  // 6
  let bufferPointer = UnsafeRawBufferPointer(start: pointer, count: byteCount)
  for (index, byte) in bufferPointer.enumerated() {
    print("byte \(index): \(byte)")
  }
}

In this example you use Unsafe Swift pointers to store and load two integers. Here’s what’s going on:

  1. These constants hold often used values:
    • count holds the number of integers to store
    • stride holds the stride of type Int
    • alignment holds the alignment of type Int
    • byteCount holds the total number of bytes needed
  2. A do block is added, to add a scope level, so you can reuse the variable names in upcoming examples.
  3. The method UnsafeMutableRawPointer.allocate is used to allocate the required bytes. This method returns an UnsafeMutableRawPointer. The name of that type tells you the pointer can be used to load and store (mutate) raw bytes.
  4. A defer block is added to make sure the pointer is deallocated properly. ARC isn’t going to help you here – you need to handle memory management yourself! You can read more about defer here.
  5. The storeBytes and load methods are used to store and load bytes. The memory address of the second integer is calculated by advancing the pointer stride bytes.
  6. Since pointers are Strideable you can also use pointer arithmetic as in (pointer+stride).storeBytes(of: 6, as: Int.self).

  7. An UnsafeRawBufferPointer lets you access memory as if it was a collection of bytes. This means you can iterate over the bytes, access them using subscripting and even use cool methods like filter, map and reduce. The buffer pointer is initialized using the raw pointer.

Using Typed Pointers

The previous example can be simplified by using typed pointers. Add the following code to your playground:

do {
  print("Typed pointers")
 
  let pointer = UnsafeMutablePointer<Int>.allocate(capacity: count)
  pointer.initialize(to: 0, count: count)
  defer {
    pointer.deinitialize(count: count)
    pointer.deallocate(capacity: count)
  }
 
  pointer.pointee = 42
  pointer.advanced(by: 1).pointee = 6
  pointer.pointee
  pointer.advanced(by: 1).pointee
 
  let bufferPointer = UnsafeBufferPointer(start: pointer, count: count)
  for (index, value) in bufferPointer.enumerated() {
    print("value \(index): \(value)")
  }
}

Notice the following differences:

  • Memory is allocated using the method UnsafeMutablePointer.allocate. The generic parameter lets Swift know the pointer will be used to load and store values of type Int.
  • Typed memory must be initialized before use and deinitialized after use. This is done using initialize and deinitialize methods respectively. Update: as noted by user atrick in the comments below, deinitialization is only required for non-trivial types. That said, including deinitialization is a good way to future proof your code in case you change to something non-trivial. Also, it usually doesn’t cost anything since the compiler will optimize it out.
  • Typed pointers have a pointee property that provides a type-safe way to load and store values.
  • When advancing a typed pointer, you can simply state the number of values you want to advance. The pointer can calculate the correct stride based on the type of values it points to. Again, pointer arithmetic also works. You can also say (pointer+1).pointee = 6
  • The same holds true for typed buffer pointers: they iterate over values, instead of bytes.

Converting Raw Pointers to Typed Pointers

Typed pointers need not always be initialized directly. They can be derived from raw pointers as well.

Add the following code to your playground:

do {
  print("Converting raw pointers to typed pointers")
 
  let rawPointer = UnsafeMutableRawPointer.allocate(bytes: byteCount, alignedTo: alignment)
  defer {
    rawPointer.deallocate(bytes: byteCount, alignedTo: alignment)
  }
 
  let typedPointer = rawPointer.bindMemory(to: Int.self, capacity: count)
  typedPointer.initialize(to: 0, count: count)
  defer {
    typedPointer.deinitialize(count: count)
  }
 
  typedPointer.pointee = 42
  typedPointer.advanced(by: 1).pointee = 6
  typedPointer.pointee
  typedPointer.advanced(by: 1).pointee
 
  let bufferPointer = UnsafeBufferPointer(start: typedPointer, count: count)
  for (index, value) in bufferPointer.enumerated() {
    print("value \(index): \(value)")
  }
}

This example is similar to the previous one, except that it first creates a raw pointer. The typed pointer is created by binding the memory to the required type Int. By binding memory, it can be accessed in a type-safe way. Memory binding is done behind the scenes when you create a typed pointer.

The rest of this example is the same as the previous one. Once you’re in typed pointer land, you can make use of `pointee` for example.

Getting The Bytes of an Instance

Often you have an existing instance of a type that you want to inspect the bytes that form it. This can be achieved using a method called withUnsafeBytes(of:).

Add the following code to your playground:

do {
  print("Getting the bytes of an instance")
 
  var sampleStruct = SampleStruct(number: 25, flag: true)
 
  withUnsafeBytes(of: &sampleStruct) { bytes in
    for byte in bytes {
      print(byte)
    }
  }
}

This prints out the raw bytes of the SampleStruct instance. The withUnsafeBytes(of:) method gives you access to an UnsafeRawBufferPointer that you can use inside the closure.

withUnsafeBytes is also available as an instance method on Array and Data.

Computing a Checksum

Using withUnsafeBytes(of:) you can return a result. An example use of this is to compute a 32-bit checksum of the bytes in a structure.

Add the following code to your playground:

do {
  print("Checksum the bytes of a struct")
 
  var sampleStruct = SampleStruct(number: 25, flag: true)
 
  let checksum = withUnsafeBytes(of: &sampleStruct) { (bytes) -> UInt32 in
    return ~bytes.reduce(UInt32(0)) { $0 + numericCast($1) }
  }
 
  print("checksum", checksum) // prints checksum 4294967269
}

The reduce call adds up all of the bytes and ~ then flips the bits. Not a particularly robust error detection, but it shows the concept.

Three Rules of Unsafe Club

You need to be careful when writing unsafe code so that you avoid undefined behavior. Here are a few examples of bad code.

Don’t return the pointer from withUnsafeBytes!

 // Rule #1
do {
  print("1. Don't return the pointer from withUnsafeBytes!")
 
  var sampleStruct = SampleStruct(number: 25, flag: true)
 
  let bytes = withUnsafeBytes(of: &sampleStruct) { bytes in
    return bytes // strange bugs here we come ☠️☠️☠️
  }
 
  print("Horse is out of the barn!", bytes)  /// undefined !!!
}

You should never let the pointer escape the withUnsafeBytes(of:) closure. Things may work today but…

Only bind to one type at a time!

// Rule #2
do {
  print("2. Only bind to one type at a time!")
 
  let count = 3
  let stride = MemoryLayout<Int16>.stride
  let alignment = MemoryLayout<Int16>.alignment
  let byteCount =  count * stride
 
  let pointer = UnsafeMutableRawPointer.allocate(bytes: byteCount, alignedTo: alignment)
 
  let typedPointer1 = pointer.bindMemory(to: UInt16.self, capacity: count)
 
  // Breakin' the Law... Breakin' the Law  (Undefined behavior)
  let typedPointer2 = pointer.bindMemory(to: Bool.self, capacity: count * 2)
 
  // If you must, do it this way:
  typedPointer1.withMemoryRebound(to: Bool.self, capacity: count * 2) {
    (boolPointer: UnsafeMutablePointer<Bool>) in
    print(boolPointer.pointee)  // See Rule #1, don't return the pointer
  }
}

badpun

Never bind memory to two unrelated types at once. This is called Type Punning and Swift does not like puns. Instead, you can temporarily rebind memory with a method like withMemoryRebound(to:capacity:). Also, the rules say it is illegal to rebind from a trivial type (such as an Int) to a non-trivial type (such as a class). Don’t do it.

Don’t walk off the end… whoops!

// Rule #3... wait
do {
  print("3. Don't walk off the end... whoops!")
 
  let count = 3
  let stride = MemoryLayout<Int16>.stride
  let alignment = MemoryLayout<Int16>.alignment
  let byteCount =  count * stride
 
  let pointer = UnsafeMutableRawPointer.allocate(bytes: byteCount, alignedTo: alignment)
  let bufferPointer = UnsafeRawBufferPointer(start: pointer, count: byteCount + 1) // OMG +1????
 
  for byte in bufferPointer {
    print(byte)  // pawing through memory like an animal
  }
}

The ever present problem of off-by-one errors are especially worse with unsafe code. Be careful, review and test!

Unsafe Swift Example 1: Compression

Time to take all of your knowledge and wrap a C API. Cocoa includes a C module that implements some common data compression algorithms. These include LZ4 for when speed is critical, LZ4A for when you need the highest compression ratio and don’t care about speed, ZLIB which balances space and speed and the new (and open source) LZFSE which does an even better job balancing space and speed.

Create a new playground, calling it Compression. Begin by defining a pure Swift API that uses Data.

Then, replace the contents of your playground with the following code:

import Foundation
import Compression
 
enum CompressionAlgorithm {
  case lz4   // speed is critical
  case lz4a  // space is critical
  case zlib  // reasonable speed and space
  case lzfse // better speed and space
}
 
enum CompressionOperation {
  case compression, decompression
}
 
// return compressed or uncompressed data depending on the operation
func perform(_ operation: CompressionOperation,
             on input: Data,
             using algorithm: CompressionAlgorithm,
             workingBufferSize: Int = 2000) -> Data?  {
  return nil
}

The function that does the compression and decompression is perform which is currently stubbed out to return nil. You will add some unsafe code to it shortly.

Next add the following code to the end of the playground:

// Compressed keeps the compressed data and the algorithm
// together as one unit, so you never forget how the data was
// compressed.
 
struct Compressed {
 
  let data: Data
  let algorithm: CompressionAlgorithm
 
  init(data: Data, algorithm: CompressionAlgorithm) {
    self.data = data
    self.algorithm = algorithm
  }
 
  // Compress the input with the specified algorithm. Returns nil if it fails.
  static func compress(input: Data,
                       with algorithm: CompressionAlgorithm) -> Compressed? {
    guard let data = perform(.compression, on: input, using: algorithm) else {
      return nil
    }
    return Compressed(data: data, algorithm: algorithm)
  }
 
  // Uncompressed data. Returns nil if the data cannot be decompressed.
 func decompressed() -> Data? {
    return perform(.decompression, on: data, using: algorithm)
  }
 
}

The Compressed structure stores both the compressed data and the algorithm that was used to create it. That makes it less error prone when deciding what decompression algorithm to use.

Next add the following code to the end of the playground:

// For discoverability, add a compressed method to Data
extension Data {
 
  // Returns compressed data or nil if compression fails.
  func compressed(with algorithm: CompressionAlgorithm) -> Compressed? {
    return Compressed.compress(input: self, with: algorithm)
  }
 
}
 
// Example usage:
 
let input = Data(bytes: Array(repeating: UInt8(123), count: 10000))
 
let compressed = input.compressed(with: .lzfse)
compressed?.data.count // in most cases much less than orginal input count
 
let restoredInput = compressed?.decompressed()
input == restoredInput // true

The main entry point is an extension on the Data type. You’ve added a method called compressed(with:) which returns an optional Compressed struct. This method simply calls the static method compress(input:with:) on Compressed.

There is an example usage at the end but it is currently not working. Time to start fixing that!

Scroll back up to the first block of code you entered, and begin the implementation of the perform(_:on:using:workingBufferSize:) function as follows:

func perform(_ operation: CompressionOperation,
             on input: Data,
             using algorithm: CompressionAlgorithm,
             workingBufferSize: Int = 2000) -> Data?  {
 
  // set the algorithm
  let streamAlgorithm: compression_algorithm
  switch algorithm {
  case .lz4:   streamAlgorithm = COMPRESSION_LZ4
  case .lz4a:  streamAlgorithm = COMPRESSION_LZMA
  case .zlib:  streamAlgorithm = COMPRESSION_ZLIB
  case .lzfse: streamAlgorithm = COMPRESSION_LZFSE
  }
 
  // set the stream operation and flags
  let streamOperation: compression_stream_operation
  let flags: Int32
  switch operation {
  case .compression:
    streamOperation = COMPRESSION_STREAM_ENCODE
    flags = Int32(COMPRESSION_STREAM_FINALIZE.rawValue)
  case .decompression:
    streamOperation = COMPRESSION_STREAM_DECODE
    flags = 0
  }
 
  return nil /// To be continued
}

This converts from your Swift types to the C types required by the compression library, for the compression algorithm and operation to perform.

Next, replace return nil with:

// 1: create a stream
var streamPointer = UnsafeMutablePointer<compression_stream>.allocate(capacity: 1)
defer {
  streamPointer.deallocate(capacity: 1)
}
 
// 2: initialize the stream
var stream = streamPointer.pointee
var status = compression_stream_init(&stream, streamOperation, streamAlgorithm)
guard status != COMPRESSION_STATUS_ERROR else {
  return nil
}
defer {
  compression_stream_destroy(&stream)
}
 
// 3: set up a destination buffer
let dstSize = workingBufferSize
let dstPointer = UnsafeMutablePointer<UInt8>.allocate(capacity: dstSize)
defer {
  dstPointer.deallocate(capacity: dstSize)
}
 
return nil /// To be continued

This is what is happening here:

  1. Allocate a compression_stream and schedule it for deallocation with the defer block.
  2. Then, using the pointee property you get the stream and pass it to the compression_stream_init function. The compiler is doing something special here. By using the inout & marker it is taking your compression_stream and turning it into a UnsafeMutablePointer<compression_stream> automatically. (You could have also just passed streamPointer and not needed this special conversion.)
  3. Finally, you create a destination buffer that will act as your working buffer.

Finish the perform function by replacing return nil with:

// process the input
return input.withUnsafeBytes { (srcPointer: UnsafePointer<UInt8>) in
  // 1
  var output = Data()
 
  // 2
  stream.src_ptr = srcPointer
  stream.src_size = input.count
  stream.dst_ptr = dstPointer
  stream.dst_size = dstSize
 
  // 3
  while status == COMPRESSION_STATUS_OK {
    // process the stream
    status = compression_stream_process(&stream, flags)
 
    // collect bytes from the stream and reset
    switch status {
 
    case COMPRESSION_STATUS_OK:
      // 4
      output.append(dstPointer, count: dstSize)
      stream.dst_ptr = dstPointer
      stream.dst_size = dstSize
 
    case COMPRESSION_STATUS_ERROR:
      return nil
 
    case COMPRESSION_STATUS_END:
      // 5
      output.append(dstPointer, count: stream.dst_ptr - dstPointer)
 
    default:
      fatalError()
    }
  }
  return output
}

This is where the work really happens. And here’s what it’s doing:

  1. Create a Data object which is going to contain the output – either the compressed or decompressed data, depending on what operation this is.
  2. Set up the source and destination buffers with the pointers you allocated and their sizes.
  3. Then you keep calling compression_stream_process as long as it continues to return COMPRESSION_STATUS_OK.
  4. The destination buffer is then copied into output that is eventually returned from this function.
  5. When the last packet comes in, marked with COMPRESSION_STATUS_END only part of the destination buffer potentially needs to be copied.

In the example usage you can see that the 10,000-element array is compressed down to 153 bytes. Not too shabby.

Unsafe Swift Example 2: Random Generator

Random numbers are important for many applications from games to machine learning. macOS provides arc4random (A Replacement Call 4 random) that produces great (cryptographically sound) random numbers. Unfortunately this call is not available on Linux. Moreover, arc4random only provides randoms as UInt32. However, the file /dev/urandom provides an unlimited source of good random numbers.

In this section, you will use your new knowledge to read this file and create completely type safe random numbers.

hexdump

Start by creating a new playground, calling it RandomNumbers. Make sure to select the macOS platform this time.

Once you’ve created it, replace the default contents with:

import Foundation
 
enum RandomSource {
 
  static let file = fopen("/dev/urandom", "r")!
  static let queue = DispatchQueue(label: "random")
 
  static func get(count: Int) -> [Int8] {
    let capacity = count + 1 // fgets adds null termination
    var data = UnsafeMutablePointer<Int8>.allocate(capacity: capacity)
    defer {
      data.deallocate(capacity: capacity)
    }
    queue.sync {
      fgets(data, Int32(capacity), file)
    }
    return Array(UnsafeMutableBufferPointer(start: data, count: count))
  }
}

The file variable is declared static so only one will exist in the system. You will rely on the system closing it when the process exits. Since it is possible that multiple threads will want random numbers, you need to protect access to it with a serial GCD queue.

The get function is where the work happens. First you create some unallocated storage that is one beyond what you need because fgets is always 0 terminated. Next, you get the data from the file, making sure to do so while operating on the GCD queue. Finally, you copy the data to a standard array by first wrapping it in a UnsafeMutableBufferPointer that can act as a Sequence.

So far this will only (safely) give you an array of Int8 values. Now you’re going to extend that.

Add the following to the end of your playground:

extension Integer {
 
  static var randomized: Self {
    let numbers = RandomSource.get(count: MemoryLayout<Self>.size)
    return numbers.withUnsafeBufferPointer { bufferPointer in
      return bufferPointer.baseAddress!.withMemoryRebound(to: Self.self, capacity: 1) {
        return $0.pointee
      }
    }
  }
 
}
 
Int8.randomized
UInt8.randomized
Int16.randomized
UInt16.randomized
Int16.randomized
UInt32.randomized
Int64.randomized
UInt64.randomized

This adds a static randomized property to all subtypes of the Integer protocol (see protocol oriented programming for more on this!). You first get the random numbers, and with the bytes of the array that is returned, you rebind (as in C++’s reinterpret_cast) the Int8 values as the type being requested and return a copy. Simples! :]

And that’s it! Random numbers in a safe way, using unsafe Swift under the hood.

Where to Go From Here?

Here are the completed playgrounds. There many additional resources you can explore to learn more:

I hope you have enjoyed this tutorial. If you have questions or experiences you would like to share, I am looking forward to hearing about them in the forums!

Team

Each tutorial at www.raywenderlich.com is created by a team of dedicated developers so that it meets our high quality standards. The team members who worked on this tutorial are:

Ray Fix

Ray Fix is using Swift to help create Revolve--the next generation in research microscopy at Echo Laboratories. In addition to his role as Swift Team Lead for Ray Wenderlich, he organizes several iOS/Swift meetups around Southern California.

Ray is mostly-fluent in spoken and written Japanese and stays healthy by walking, jogging, and playing ultimate frisbee. When he is not doing one of those things, he is writing and dreaming of code in Swift. よろしくお願い致します。😃

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