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SwiftUI Property Wrappers

Learn different ways to use SwiftUI property wrappers to manage changes to an app’s data values and objects.

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Version

  • Swift 5, iOS 14, Xcode 12

In a SwiftUI app, every data value or object that can change needs a single source of truth and a mechanism to enable views to change it or to observe it. SwiftUI property wrappers enable you to declare how each view interacts with mutable data.

In this tutorial, you’ll build a simple app and learn different ways to use SwiftUI property wrappers to manage changes to its data values and objects with the @State, @Binding, @Environment, @StateObject, @ObservedObject and @EnvironmentObject property wrappers.

Note: This tutorial assumes you’re comfortable with using Xcode to develop iOS apps and familiar with SwiftUI basics like those in SwiftUI Tutorial: Getting Started and SwiftUI Tutorial: Navigation.

Getting Started

Download the project materials using the Download Materials button at the top or bottom of this tutorial.

Open the TIL project in the starter folder. The project name “TIL” is the acronym for “Today I Learned”. Or, you can think of it as “Things I Learned”. Here’s how the app should work: The user taps the + button to add acronyms like “YOLO” and “BTW”, and the main screen displays these.

TIL in action

TIL in action

This app embeds the VStack in a NavigationView. This gives you the navigation bar where you display the title and the + button.

Build and run the app. If you get a LayoutConstraints message in the console, complaining about UIModernBarButton, add this modifier to the NavigationView in ContentView.swift:

.navigationViewStyle(StackNavigationViewStyle())

This is a workaround for a navigationTitle bug. To find the right place to add the modifier, fold NavigationView:

Fold NavigationView to add the modifier.

Fold NavigationView to add the modifier.

ThingStore has the property things, which is an array of String values.

You’ll first manage state changes to the ThingStore structure using @State and @Binding, then convert it to an ObservableObject and manage state changes with @StateObject and @ObservedObject.

Finally, you’ll extend the app to create a reason to access ThingStore as an @EnvironmentObject. You’ll instantiate ThingStore when you create ContentView in TILApp. As an @EnvironmentObject, your ThingStore object will be available to any view that needs to access it.

Tools for Managing Data

A @State property is a source of truth. A view that owns a @State property can pass either its value or its binding to its subviews. If it passes a binding to a subview, the subview now has a reference to the source of truth. This allows it to update that property’s value or redraw itself when that variable changes. When a @State value changes, any view with a reference to it invalidates its appearance and redraws itself to display its new state.

Your app needs to manage changes to two kinds of data:

Managing UI values and model objects

Managing UI values and model objects

  • User interface values, like Boolean flags to show or hide views, text field text, slider or picker values.
  • Data model objects, often collections of objects that model the app’s data, like a collection of acronyms.

Property Wrappers

Property wrappers wrap a value or object in a structure with two properties:

  • wrappedValue is the underlying value or object.
  • projectedValue is a binding to the wrapped value or a projection of the object that creates bindings to its properties.

Swift syntax lets you write just the name of the property, like showAddThing, instead of showAddThing.wrappedValue. And, its binding is $showAddThing instead of showAddThing.projectedValue.

SwiftUI provides property wrappers and other tools to create and modify the single source of truth for values and for objects:

  • User interface values: Use @State and @Binding for values like showAddThing that affect the view’s appearance. The underlying type must be a value type like Bool, Int, String or Thing. Use @State to create a source of truth in one view, then pass a @Binding to this property to subviews. A view can access built-in @Environment values as @Environment properties or with the .environment(_:_:) view modifier.
  • Data model objects: For objects like ThingStore that model your app’s data, use @StateObject with @ObservedObject or .environmentObject(_:) with @EnvironmentObject. The underlying object type must be a reference type — a class — that conforms to ObservableObject, and it should publish at least one value. Then, either use @StateObject and @ObservedObject or declare an @EnvironmentObject with the same type as the environment object created by the .environmentObject(_:) view modifier.

While prototyping your app, you can model your data with structures and use @State and @Binding. When you’ve worked out how data needs to flow through your app, you can refactor your app to accommodate data types that need to conform to ObservableObject.

This is what you’ll do in this tutorial to consolidate your understanding of how to use these property wrappers.

Note: There are two other property wrappers, which manage the state of the app or scene. @AppStorage wraps UserDefaults values and you can use @SceneStorage to save and restore the state of a scene.

Managing UI State Values

@State and @Binding value properties are mainly used to manage the state of your app’s user interface.

A view is a structure, so you can’t change a property value unless you wrap it as a @State or @Binding property.

The view that owns a @State property is responsible for initializing it. The @State property wrapper creates persistent storage for the value outside the view structure and preserves its value when the view redraws itself. This means initialization happens exactly once.

Managing ThingStore With @State and @Binding

TIL is a very simple app, making it easy to examine different ways to manage the app’s data. First, you’ll manage ThingStore the same way as any other mutable value you share between your app’s views.

In ContentView.swift, run live preview and tap the + button:

Starter TIL

Starter TIL

MyThings initializes with an empty things array so, the first time your user launches your app, you display a message instead of a blank page. The message gives your users a hint of what they can do with your app. The text is grayed out so they know it’s just a placeholder until they add their own data.

TIL uses a Boolean flag showAddThing to show or hide AddThingView. It’s a @State property because its value changes when you tap the + button, and ContentView owns it.

In ContentView.swift, replace the myThings property in ContentView:

@State private var myThings = ThingStore()

You’ll add items to myThings.things, so myThings must be a wrapped property. In this case, it’s @State because ContentView owns it and initializes it.

AddThingView needs to modify myThings, so you need a @Binding in AddThingView.

In AddThingView.swift, add this property to AddThingView:

@Binding var someThings: ThingStore

You’ll soon pass this binding from ContentView.

You’ll also add a text field, but for now, just to have something happen when you tap Done, add this line to the button action, before you dismiss this sheet:

someThings.things.append("FOMO")

You append a specific string to the array.

Fix this view’s previews:

AddThingView(someThings: .constant(ThingStore()))

You create a binding for the constant initial value of ThingStore.

Now, go back to ContentView.swift and fix the call to AddThingView():

AddThingView(someThings: $myThings)

You pass a binding to the ContentView @State property to the subview AddThingView.

Note: Passing a binding gives the subview write access to everything in ThingStore. In this case, ThingStore has only the things array but, if it had more properties and you wanted to restrict write access to its things array, you could pass $myThings.things — a binding to only the things array. You’d need to initialize an array of String for the preview of AddThingView.

Start live preview, tap + then tap Done:

Adding a string works.

Adding a string works.

Great, you’ve got data flowing from AddThingView to ContentView via ThingStore!

Now to get input from your user, you’ll add a TextField to AddThingView.

First, pin the preview of ContentView so it’s there when you’re ready to test your TextField: Click the push-pin button in the canvas toolbar.

Using a TextField

Many UI controls work by binding a parameter to a @State property of the view: These include Slider, Toggle, Picker and TextField.

To get user input via a TextField, you need a mutable String property to store the user’s input.

In AddThingView.swift, add this property to AddThingView:

@State private var thing = ""

It’s a @State property because it must persist when the view redraws itself. AddThingView owns this property, so it’s responsible for initializing thing. You initialize it to the empty string.

Now, add your TextField in the VStack, above the Done button:

TextField("Thing I Learned", text: $thing)  // 1
  .textFieldStyle(RoundedBorderTextFieldStyle())  // 2
  .padding()  // 3
  1. The label “Thing I Learned” is the placeholder text. It appears grayed out in the TextField as a hint to the user. You pass a binding to thing so TextField can set this value to what the user types.
  2. You dress up this TextField with a rounded border.
  3. You add padding so there’s some space from the top of the view and also to the button.

Then, edit what the button action appends:

if !thing.isEmpty {
  someThings.things.append(thing)
}

Instead of "FOMO", you append the user’s text input to your things array after checking it’s not the empty string.

Refresh live-preview in the ContentView preview and tap +. Type an acronym like YOLO in the text field. It automatically capitalizes the first letter, but you must hold down the Shift key for the rest of the letters. Tap Done:

TextField input

TextField input

ContentView displays your new acronym.

Sometimes the text field auto-corrects your acronym: FTW to GET or FOMO to DINO.

Add this modifier to TextField:

.disableAutocorrection(true)

Accessing Environment Values

A view can access many environment values like accessibilityEnabled, colorScheme, lineSpacing, font and presentationMode. Apple’s SwiftUI documentation has a full list of environment values.

A view’s environment is a kind of inheritance mechanism. A view inherits environment values from its ancestor views, and its subviews inherit its environment values.

To see this, open ContentView.swift and click anywhere in this line:

Text("Add acronyms you learn")

Now open the Attributes inspector:

Text view attributes: Many are inherited.

Text view attributes: Many are inherited.

Font, Weight, Line Limit, Padding and Frame Size are Inherited. Font Color would also be inherited if you hadn’t set it to Gray.

A view can override an inherited environment value. It’s common to set a default font for a stack then override it for the text in a subview of the stack.

Modifying Environment Values

AddThingView already uses the presentationMode environment value, declared as a view property. But, you can also set environment values by modifying a view.

Acronyms should appear as all caps but it’s easy to forget to hold down the Shift key. You can actually set an environment value to automatically convert text to upper case.

In TILApp.swift, add this modifier to ContentView():

.environment(\.textCase, .uppercase)

You set uppercase as the default value of textCase for ContentView and all its subviews.

Note: .textCase(.uppercase) also works, but the .environment syntax highlights the fact that textCase is an environment value.

To see it in live preview, also add this modifier in ContentView.swift to ContentView() in previews.

Refresh live-preview, add acronyms without bothering to keep all the letters uppercase. Just type yolo or fomo. Tap DONE. Notice this label and the placeholder text are now all uppercase:

Automagic upper case

Automagic upper case

Note: If the placeholder text isn’t all upper case, press Shift-Command-K to clean the build folder.

Your strings are automatically converted to upper case.

The environment value applies to all text in your app, which looks a little strange. No problem — you can override it.

In AddThingView, add this modifier to the VStack:

.textCase(nil)

You set the value to nil, so none of the text displayed by this VStack is converted to uppercase.

Refresh live-preview, tap +, type icymi then tap Done:

No upper case conversion in AddThing

No upper case conversion in AddThing

Now, the button label and placeholder text are back to normal. The uppercase environment default still converts your strings to all caps on the main screen.

Managing Model Data Objects

@State, @Binding and @Environment only work with value data types. Simple built-in data types like Int, Bool or String are useful for defining the state of your app’s user interface.

You can use custom value data types like struct or enum to model your app’s data. And, you can use @State and @Binding to manage updates to these values, as you did earlier in this tutorial.

Most apps also use classes to model data. SwiftUI provides a different mechanism to manage changes to class objects: ObservableObject, @StateObject, @ObservedObject and @EnvironmentObject. To practice using @ObservedObject, you’ll refactor TIL to use @StateObject and @ObservedObject to update ThingStore, which conforms to ObservableObject. You’ll see a lot of similarities, and a few differences, to using @State and @Binding.

Class and Structure

But, this section isn’t just to practice managing objects. ThingStore actually should be a class, not a structure.

@State and @Binding work well enough to update the ThingStore source of truth value in ContentView from AddThingView. But ThingStore isn’t the most natural use of a structure. For the way your app uses ThingStore, a class is a better fit.

A class is more suitable when you need shared mutable state like ThingStore. A structure is more suitable when you need multiple independent states like the Thing structures you’ll create later in this tutorial.

For a class object, change is normal. A class object expects its properties to change. For a structure instance, change is exceptional. A structure instance requires advance notice that a method might change a property.

A class object expects to be shared, and any reference can be used to change its properties. A structure instance lets itself be copied, but its copies change independently of it and of each other.

Managing ThingStore With @StateObject and @ObservedObject

To use ThingStore as an @ObservedObject, you’ll convert it from a structure to a class that conforms to ObservableObject. Then, you’ll create it as a @StateObject and pass it to a subview that uses it as an @ObservedObject. Sounds a lot like “create a @State property and pass its @Binding“, doesn’t it?

Note: You can pass a @State value or a @StateObject to a subview as a @Binding or @ObservedObject property, even if that subview needs only read access. This enables the subview to redraw itself whenever the @State value or ObservableObject changes.

In ContentView.swift, replace the ThingStore structure with the following:

final class ThingStore: ObservableObject {
  @Published var things: [String] = []
}

You make ThingStore a class instead of a structure, then make it conform to ObservableObject. You mark this class final to tell the compiler it doesn’t have to check for any subclasses overriding properties or methods.

ThingStore publishes its array of data. A view subscribes to this publisher by declaring it as a @StateObject, @ObservedObject or @EnvironmentObject. Any change to things notifies subscriber views to redraw themselves.

In TIL, AddThingView will use an @ObservedObject, so you must instantiate the model object as a @StateObject in an ancestor view, then pass it as a parameter to its subviews. The owning view creates the @StateObject exactly once.

In ContentView, replace @State private var myThings = ThingStore() with this line:

@StateObject private var myThings = ThingStore()

ThingStore is now a class, not a structure, so you can’t use the @State property wrapper. Instead, you use @StateObject.

Note: You can wrap a class object as a @State property, but its “value” is its address in memory, so dependent views will redraw themselves only when its address changes — for example, when the app reinitializes it.

The @StateObject property wrapper ensures myThings is instantiated only once. It persists when ContentView redraws itself.

In the call to AddThingView(someThings:), remove the binding symbol $:

AddThingView(someThings: myThings)

You don’t need to create a reference to myThings. As a class object, it’s already a reference.

In AddThingView.swift, replace @Binding in AddThingView with @ObservedObject:

@ObservedObject var someThings: ThingStore
Note: If ThingStore had more properties and you wanted to restrict write access to its things array, you could pass $myThings.things to AddThingView, which would have a @Binding someThings: [String] property.

And fix its previews:

AddThingView(someThings: ThingStore())

The argument isn’t a binding anymore.

Refresh live-preview, tap +, type yolo then tap Done:

TIL in action

TIL in action

No surprise: The app still works the same as before.

Refactoring TIL

You’ve managed the state of data in TIL with @State and @Binding for ThingStore as a structure (value type), then with ObservableObject, @StateObject and @ObservedObject for ThingStore as a class (reference type).

TIL is a very simple app with a very simple view hierarchy. AddThingView is a subview of ContentView, so ContentView just passes the ThingStore value or object to AddThingView.

Most apps have a more complex view hierarchy, where you might find yourself passing an object to a subview just so it can pass it on to one of its subviews. In this situation, you should consider using @EnvironmentObject.

To try this out, you’ll need to make TIL a little less simple. Keeping a list of acronyms isn’t much use if you can’t remember what they mean. TIL really needs to store the long form of each acronym. So first, you’ll create a Thing structure and refactor TIL to use this instead of String. Then, you’ll create a detail view to display when the user taps an acronym in ContentView. To give you a reason to use @EnvironmentObject, ThingView will have the same “Add New Thing” button as ContentView.

Using Thing Structure

Move ThingStore to its own file and add struct Thing:

// ThingStore.swift
import SwiftUI

final class ThingStore: ObservableObject {
  @Published var things: [Thing] = []   // 1
}

struct Thing: Identifiable {
  let id = UUID()   // 2
  let short: String
  let long: String
}
  1. ThingStore now publishes an array of Thing values instead of an array of String values.
  2. It’s possible to have the same acronym with different meanings, so Thing needs a unique id value.

In ContentView.swift, modify ContentView to use Thing:

ForEach(myThings.things) { thing in   // 1
  Text(thing.short)   // 2
}
  1. ForEach doesn’t need the id parameter now that it’s iterating over an Identifiable type.
  2. You display the short form of the acronym.

There’s a lot more work to do in AddThingView.swift.

Replace @State private var thing = "" with two @State properties:

@State private var short = ""
@State private var long = ""

Replace TextField("Thing I Learned", text: $thing) with these two text fields:

TextField("TIL", text: $short)   // 1
  .disableAutocorrection(true)
  .autocapitalization(.allCharacters)   // 2
TextField("Thing I Learned", text: $long)
  .autocapitalization(.words)
  1. The placeholder text “TIL” indicates this text field is for the acronym.
  2. Now that user input includes text with different capitalizations, you modify each text field to automatically capitalize either all letters or all words.

Now you don’t need or want to set the textCase environment value for ContentView.

Delete .environment(\.textCase, .uppercase) in TILApp.swift and in struct ContentView_Previews in ContentView.swift.

And, you don’t need to override .uppercase in AddThingView. Back in AddThingView.swift, delete .textCase(nil) from the VStack.

Continue to refactor AddThingView to work with Thing instead of String:

Move the textFieldStyle and padding to modify the VStack:

// VStack { ... }
.padding()
.textFieldStyle(RoundedBorderTextFieldStyle())

Now that you have two text fields, you modify their container instead of attaching the same modifiers to both text fields.

Next, modify the Done button action to create a Thing instance:

if !short.isEmpty {
  someThings.things.append(
    Thing(short: short, long: long))
}

Live-preview ContentView and add the short and long versions of an acronym like FTW:

Adding an acronym and its meaning

Adding an acronym and its meaning

I actually typed “ftw” and “for the win”. I didn’t touch the Shift key at all.

Now, you need a detail view to navigate to when the user taps an acronym in the list.

Navigating to ThingView

Create a new SwiftUI View file named ThingView.swift and replace its contents with the following:

import SwiftUI

struct ThingView: View {
  let thing: Thing
  
  var body: some View {
    VStack {
      Text(thing.short)
        .font(.largeTitle)
      Text(thing.long)
        .font(.title)
      Spacer()
    }
    .padding()
  }
}

struct ThingView_Previews: PreviewProvider {
  static var previews: some View {
    ThingView(thing: Thing(short: "TIL", long: "Thing I Learned"))
  }
}

You just display the acronym and its meaning.

In ContentView.swift, in the ForEach closure, replace Text(thing.short) with the following:

NavigationLink(destination: ThingView(thing: thing)) {
  Text(thing.short)
}

You pass a Thing value to ThingView. To do its main job — display a Thing value — ThingView doesn’t need access to the ThingStore object.

Live-preview ContentView, add the short and long versions of an acronym, then check out its detail view:

Viewing the acronym you added

Viewing the acronym you added

Well yes, you could easily display both short and long texts in the main list. Here’s a possible use case for the detail view: Use the main list to quiz yourself, then display the detail view to check your answer.

Adding a New Thing From ThingView

Now, suppose you want to let the user add a new Thing from ThingView.

Copy the showAddThing property and the .sheet and .toolbar modifiers from ContentView to ThingView:

@State private var showAddThing = false
// ...
// modify the VStack with these
.sheet(isPresented: $showAddThing) {
  AddThingView(someThings: myThings)
}
.toolbar {
  ToolbarItem {
    Button(action: { showAddThing.toggle() }) {
      Image(systemName: "plus.circle")
        .font(.title)
    }
  }
}

And Xcode complains “Cannot find ‘myThings’ in scope”. So, it’s time to make a decision! Do you pass myThings from ContentView to ThingView just so it can pass it on to AddThingView?

TIL is still a small app so this isn’t a life-changing decision. But your own apps will grow and grow and, at some point, you’ll have to face this kind of decision in earnest. Here’s the other option.

Using @EnvironmentObject

An @EnvironmentObject is available to every view in a subtree of the app’s view hierarchy. You don’t pass it as a parameter.

You don’t need to do anything to ThingStore because you still instantiate an ObservableObject as a @StateObject before using it as an @EnvironmentObject.

What does change is where you instantiate the @StateObject you’re going to use as an @EnvironmentObject.

If a view uses an @EnvironmentObject, you must create the model object by calling the environmentObject(_:) modifier on an ancestor view. ContentView uses the ThingStore object, so you create it in TILApp.swift when it creates ContentView.

Move the declaration of ThingStore() from ContentView.swift to TILApp.swift:

struct TILApp: App {
  @StateObject private var store = ThingStore()

Then, in WindowGroup, add this modifier to ContentView():

.environmentObject(store)

Now, any view in TIL can access this ThingStore object directly.

In ContentView.swift, replace the myThings property with this:

@EnvironmentObject private var myThings: ThingStore

ContentView() doesn’t have to use the same variable name as TILApp. The ThingStore type is like a dictionary key, and Xcode matches up its value to myThings.

Now, modify AddThingView to use your environment object.

Delete the argument from the call to AddThingView:

AddThingView()

Xcode complains, but you’re about to fix the error. Although ContentView can perfectly well pass myThings to AddThingView, you don’t want to make ThingView do the same. So AddThingView needs to access the ThingStore object as an @EnvironmentObject.

Fix the preview by attaching a ThingStore object:

ContentView()
  .environmentObject(ThingStore())
Note: The preview doesn’t need ThingStore to persist between view refreshes.

In AddThingView.swift, replace someThings with this:

@EnvironmentObject var someThings: ThingStore

You just change @ObservedObject, which must be passed in as a parameter, to EnvironmentObject, which is just there in the environment.

Also fix the preview: Delete the argument and attach a ThingStore object:

AddThingView()
  .environmentObject(ThingStore())

If you don’t create a ThingStore object for the preview, it crashes when you tap Done.

And, in ThingView.swift, delete the argument from the call to AddThingView:

AddThingView()

That’s all you need to do! The two views that use the ThingStore object access it as an @EnvironmentObject, giving it any name they want. ThingView doesn’t need to know anything about ThingStore.

Live-preview ContentView and run it through its paces.

Adding acronyms from list and detail views

Adding acronyms from list and detail views

Wrapping Up Property Wrappers

Here’s a summary to help you wrap your head around property wrappers.

First, decide whether you’re managing the state of a value or the state of an object. Values are mainly used to describe the state of your app’s user interface. If you can model your app’s data with value data types, you’re in luck because you have a lot more property wrapper options for working with values. But at some level, most apps need reference types to model their data, often to add or remove items from a collection.

Property wrappers for values and objects

Property wrappers for values and objects

Wrapping Values

@State and @Binding are the workhorses of value property wrappers. A view owns the value if it doesn’t receive it from any parent views. In this case, it’s a @State property — the single source of truth. When a view is first created, it initializes its @State properties. When a @State value changes, the view redraws itself, resetting everything except its @State properties.

The owning view can pass a @State value to a subview as an ordinary read-only value or as a read-write @Binding.

When you’re prototyping an app and trying out a subview, you might write it as a stand-alone view with only @State properties. Later, when you fit it into your app, you just change @State to @Binding for values that come from a parent view.

Your app can access the built-in @Environment values. An environment value persists within the subtree of the view you attach it to. Often, this is just a container like VStack, where you use an environment value to set a default like font size.

Note: You can also define your own custom environment value, for example to expose a view’s property to ancestor views. This is beyond the scope of this tutorial.

You can store a few values in the @AppStorage or @SceneStorage dictionary. @AppStorage values are in UserDefaults, so they persist after the app closes. You use a @SceneStorage value to restore the state of a scene when the app reopens. In an iOS context, scenes are easiest to see as multiple windows on an iPad.

Wrapping Objects

When your app needs to change and respond to changes in a reference type, you create a class that conforms to ObservableObject and publishes the appropriate properties. In this case, you use @StateObject and @ObservedObject in much the same way as @State and @Binding for values. You instantiate your publisher class in a view as a @StateObject then pass it to subviews as an @ObservedObject. When the owning view redraws itself, it doesn’t reset its @StateObject properties.

If your app’s views need more flexible access to the object, you can lift it into the environment of a view’s subtree, still as a @StateObject. You must instantiate it here. Your app will crash if you forget to create it. Then you use the .environmentObject(_:) modifier to attach it to a view. Any view in the view’s subtree can then subscribe to the publisher object by declaring an @EnvironmentObject of that type.

To make an environment object available to every view in your app, attach it to the root view when the App creates its WindowGroup.

One More Thing

There are two small issues with the text fields. Fixing them would improve your users’ experience, mainly because they pretty much expect this behavior:

  1. When AddThingView appears, the focus should be in the first text field and the keyboard should be active.
  2. Tapping return after typing the long form of the acronym should perform the same action as tapping Done.

For the first issue, there’s no native SwiftUI way to programmatically make a TextField first responder. Solutions involve third party packages or a custom UIViewRepresentable text field that conforms to UITextFieldDelegate.

For the second issue, there’s a long-version TextField initializer.

First, in AddThingView.swift, extract the Done button action into a method:

private func saveAndExit() {
  if !short.isEmpty {
    someThings.things.append(
      Thing(short: short, long: long))
  }
  presentationMode.wrappedValue.dismiss()
}

// ...

Button("Done") { saveAndExit() }

You’ll use this method a second time in this file in the TextField action.

Replace TextField("Thing I Learned", text: $long) with the following:

TextField(
  "Thing I Learned",
  text: $long,
  onEditingChanged: { _ in },
  onCommit: { saveAndExit() }
)

Tapping return triggers the onCommit action.

Live-preview ContentView and run it through its paces.

Tapping return saves and exits.

Tapping return saves and exits.

Where to Go From Here?

You can download the final project by using the Download Materials button at the top or bottom of this page.

You’ve learned a lot about managing mutable data values and objects in a SwiftUI app with the @State, @Binding, @Environment, @StateObject, @ObservedObject and @EnvironmentObject property wrappers. This includes:

  • Use @State and @Binding to manage changes to user interface values.
  • Access @Environment values as @Environment view properties or by using the environment view modifier.
  • Use @StateObject and @ObservedObject to manage changes to data model objects. The object type must conform to ObservableObject and should publish at least one value.
  • For more flexible access to an ObservableObject, instantiate it as a @StateObject then pass it in the environmentObject view modifier. Declare an @EnvironmentObject property in any subviews that need access to it.
  • When prototyping your app, you can use @State and @Binding with structures that model your app’s data. When you’ve worked out how data needs to flow through your app, you can refactor your app to accommodate data types that need to conform to ObservableObject.

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