Introduction to Unity: Getting Started – Part 2/2

Brian Moakley
Note: This tutorial is part of the Unity Feast. To see more tutorials being featured in the Unity Feast as well as to learn how to take part in the Unity Feast game jam, click over here.

unity-5-logo-cropped

In Part 1 of this Unity tutorial series, you learned the ins-and-outs of the Unity interface. In this second part, you’ll work in the Unity interface as you create your first game, a small space shooter. Along the way, you’ll learn the following:

  • How to use the Project Browser to import and organize your assets.
  • The difference between GameObjects and Prefabs.
  • How physics work in Unity.
  • How cameras work and which types of projections are available.
  • The basics of Materials in Unity.

This tutorial is meant to be an overview of Unity’s various systems. You’ll be assembling a game from all the pre-created assets, while in subsequent tutorials, you’ll learn about Unity’s subsystems in depth while you create your own assets and write your own scripts.

There’s a lot to cover, so put your phone on airplane mode, lock the doors, and open your mind to the world of Unity!

Getting Started

Download the sample files for this tutorial; they contain three folders: game assets, models and the starter project. You can simply use the project that you worked on in the first part of the tutorial, or you can open the project from the folder starter project in Unity using File\Open Project and then selecting the folder.

Note: Opening projects in Unity is a little different than other programs. You can either click a Scene file in your file browser, or select the project folder from within Unity:

Screen Shot 2015-08-05 at 10.30.55 AM

Screen Shot 2015-08-05 at 10.34.22 AM

In your file system navigate to the the game assets folder from the collection of sample files, select all files in that folder, and drag them into the Project Browser in Unity:

Screen Shot 2015-08-04 at 12.49.11 PM

Note: If you don’t see the Project Browser, Select Window\Layouts\2 by 3.

Unity will import all files; this may take a little while. When Unity’s finished importing the files, your Project Browser will look like the following:

Screen Shot 2015-08-06 at 1.01.28 PM

Unity defaults to large thumbnails, but I prefer to work with lists instead. At the bottom of the Project Browser, move the slider to the left to shrink the assets thumbnails. Moving the slider to the right makes them larger:

Resize Assets

While it’s nice to have all your assets in one place, they’re not organized too well – or at all! It doesn’t seem like a big problem when you first start a project, but as your project expands, so will your collection of assets.

By organizing your assets up front, you’ll spend less time searching for your assets and more time actually building your game.

Your next step is to organize your assets into folders. In the Project Browser, press the Create button and select Folder from the list of options:

Screen Shot 2015-08-06 at 1.12.59 PM

Give the new folder the name Materials. Your Project Browser should now look something like the following:

Screen Shot 2015-08-06 at 1.15.11 PM

Now create the following five folders to hold the rest of your assets:

  • Models
  • Prefabs
  • Scripts
  • Sounds
  • Textures

Folders in Unity behave much like the ones on your computer. You can create subfolders and drag folders into and out of other folders. The underlying filesystem will match the organization in Unity, which makes it easy for you to find your assets outside of Unity.

Now, it’s time to get organized! Select the Bullet, Debris, GameManager, IonCannon, RendererFade, ScreenWrap and ShipController scripts and drag them into the Script folder.

Next, select the background-music, explosion and shoot sound files and drag them into the Sounds folder.

Finally, select the flint_like_rock_4787 texture and move it into the Textures folder.

Your Project Browser should now look like the following:

Screen Shot 2015-08-04 at 1.08.12 PM

At this point, you’re probably eager to start making your game. But before you get too far, you need to get into the habit of saving your work since Unity doesn’t offer an autosave feature. If Unity crashed or you lost your power, you’d lose everything except your project organization.

In order to save your game, you need to create a new scene. A scene can be one level of many in a game, or it could be the only “level” in the entire game. In this game, you’ll use just one scene for everything.

Press Command-S to save your game. A save dialog will open; name your scene Main like so:

Screen Shot 2015-07-28 at 5.23.49 PM

Note: You can download this third-party script to make up for the lack of an auto-save feature in Unity. Unless, of course, you’re one of those compulsive people who hit “Save” every thirty seconds. :]

Working with GameObjects and Prefabs

What’s a game without a player? Look inside models\player from the sample files; you’ll see an FBX file along with a few image files.

An FBX file contains all the data required to create a 3D model along with other things such as animations. The player file you’ll use in this Unity tutorial was created by ComboMash for his game Hextraction.

Select all the files in the player folder and drag them into your Project Browser. You’ll see the following dialog:

Screen Shot 2015-07-28 at 5.57.01 PM

Some image files convey extra information for Unity, but are saved as a standard image format. In this case, p_pod_normal.jpg defines the depths of a surface, which provides surface lighting information without the need to create additional geometry. This is called a normal map.

However, Unity thinks it’s dealing with a regular image. Click Fix Now to instruct Unity to treat this file as a regular normal map.

Once you’ve imported the player files, drag the hextraction_pod asset from the Project Browser into the Scene View as follows:

Screen Shot 2015-07-29 at 1.06.39 PM

Cool – you’ve created your first instance of a model. Unity correctly imported the textures and applied them to the model.

You’ll also notice the Hierarchy now lists the new GameObject:

Screen Shot 2015-07-29 at 1.12.20 PM

As noted in Part 1 of this tutorial series, everything in your Hierarchy will be a type of GameObject. A GameObject by itself contains what’s known as a transform, which has information about the position, scale, and rotation of the GameObject:

Screen Shot 2015-08-05 at 10.51.39 AM

You customize GameObjects by adding Components to them; you can think of Components as representing the behavior and appearance of the GameObject.

For instance, you can add a lighting Component to illuminate your GameObject. You can add an Audio Source to make your GameObject emit sound, or even write your own Components as scripts and attach them to GameObjects.

GameObjects can also act as containers. Click on the disclosure triangle to the left of hextraction_pod in the Hierarchy; you’ll see the following collection of GameObjects:

Screen Shot 2015-07-29 at 1.13.03 PM

A lot of these are empty GameObjects that represent the structure of a model. Unity creates these GameObjects when you import a model. Other GameObjects, such as the children of pod_mesh, contain Components such Skinned Mesh Renderers to display geometry on the screen.

You’ll notice that some GameObjects in the Hierarchy are labelled in black, while others are labelled in blue:

Screen Shot 2015-07-29 at 1.12.20 PM

The black color means it is a standard GameObject. The blue text tells you the GameObject is connected to other objects with a Prefab. Sometimes GameObjects also turn brown. This means they have lost the prefab connection.

Prefabs let you save GameObjects to be easily duplicated either using code or through dragging new instances into the Scene View. It is a bit like using sand forms. Except, the instances of the Prefab are all connected. When you change the prefab, the instances will change as well.

Once you have an instance of a Prefab in the Scene View, you can customize it as you like. There may be times when you want to push these changes to existing Prefabs (because you liked them) or reset the instance to the state of the original prefab (because you messed up).

Select hextraction_pod in the Hierarchy. You’ll see three buttons in the Inspector: Select, Revert, and Open:

Screen Shot 2015-07-29 at 2.10.50 PM

Select locates the Prefab in your Project Browser. This is particularly useful when you misplace your Prefab in a complicated folder structure within your Project Browser.

When you make changes to a Prefab, you’ll see an Apply button in place of Select. Apply lets you push your changes to all other instances of that Prefab. The Revert button reverses any changes made to an instance of Prefab to the state of the original Prefab. Finally, Open opens the model file in the program that generated it, such as Maya or Blender.

Currently, the player’s ship has a tiled grid underneath it, which looks a bit strange. Select the tile_reference GameObject from the Hierarchy; it’s a direct child of the hextraction_pod GameObject.

Note: Don’t forget you can type the name of the object you’re looking for into the Hierarchy’s search bar to save you time.

search

With tile_reference selected in the Hierarchy, delete the gile grid by pressing Cmd-Delete. Unity will present you with the following warning:

Screen Shot 2015-07-29 at 3.13.30 PM

Unity’s warning you that such a major change will break the connection to the Prefab. Since you’re sure you want to do this, click Continue. You’ll note that hextraction_pod is labelled in black text, indicating it’s reverted to a plain old GameObject:

Screen Shot 2015-07-29 at 3.17.20 PM

Next, right on hextraction_pod in Hierarchy, select Rename, and name it Spaceship.

Now drag Spaceship into the the Prefabs folder of the Project Browser:

Screen Shot 2015-07-29 at 4.05.42 PM

Dragging a GameObject into the Project Browser converts it into a Prefab without any extra effort on your part. You could create as many instances of the Spaceship by dragging them from the Project Browser and into the Scene View. Currently this only copies the model, but later it could contain script, audio setting, and much more. So you can already see, that Prefabs can be really helpful.

Create Prefabs

Finally, take a moment to keep the Project Browser organized: drag hextraction_pod into the Models folder and the p_pod_ files into the Textures folder.

Note: You could create a new folder just as you would for normal maps, but to make things easier you’ll put them in the Textures folder instead.

Controlling the Camera

A spaceship isn’t really useful if it can’t move. In this section, you’ll give the player control of the spaceship. To do that, you’ll need to deal with two things: the camera and the physics system. Don’t worry, you won’t need to deal with subatomic particle physics today! :]

First, you need to set up the ship. Select the Spaceship in the Hierarchy, then use the Inspector to set its position to (3.74, 1.99, 10) and the rotation to (270,0, 0) as shown below:

Screen Shot 2015-08-06 at 1.40.05 PM

Looking at the Game View, you can see that the ship is still a little too close to the camera:

Screen Shot 2015-08-06 at 1.40.55 PM

There are two ways to fix this: you can either move the ship further back, or you can configure the camera. Prepare to become a camera assistant! :]

Select the Main Camera in the Hierarchy; you’ll see a Camera Component in the Inspector. There are a ton of options here, but for now ignore everything except Projection and Field of View:

Screen Shot 2015-07-30 at 2.07.13 PM

You can choose Perspective or Orthographic for your projection field; this choice determines the ultimate appearance of the game. Perspective projection behaves very much like your eye does; the closer an object is to your eye, the larger it appears. Orthographic projections discard depth information; objects closer to you, or in this case, the camera, will appear the same size as objects farther away:

The two cubes in the left are being shown with Perspective projection while the cubes on the right are Orthographic.

The two cubes in the left are being shown with Perspective projection while the cubes on the right are Orthographic.

Generally speaking, 3D games should use a Perspective projection. Games without depth, like 2D games, should use Orthographic projection.

While your game has 3D elements, the gameplay is essentially 2D. In the Projection field, select Orthographic. Next, set the size to 18.85. Your Game View should look like the following:

Screen Shot 2015-07-30 at 3.09.50 PM

A spaceship should fly, shouldn’t it? To do this, you’d have to write some code in C# or UnityScript to move the ship frame-by-frame. To save you some work, the example files contain a script all ready to use. The question is, how do you add it to your ship?

A script is simply another type of Component, and there are lots of ways to add Components to GameObjects. You’ll experiment with a few methods in this tutorial.

For now, select Spaceship from the Hierarchy. Then select the Component option from the menu bar. At the bottom, you’ll see an option called Scripts with a flyout menu of available scripts. Select the Ship Controller script:

Screen Shot 2015-07-30 at 3.15.30 PM

Just as you can with other Components, you can define fields in your scripts that you can access in the editor. This gives you the ability to change properties of your scripts while your game is being played:

Screen Shot 2015-08-05 at 11.10.10 AM

Set Move Speed of your script to 22 and Rotation Speed to 2. The move speed determines the speed of the ship, while the rotation speed determines how quickly the ship can turn. Hit the Play button in the top middle of the Unity interface. This starts the game. Use the arrow keys to move your ship.

Unfortunately, your ship will fly off the screen, to Alpha Centurai and beyond. You’ll need to fix that.

Use the menu bar as before to add the ScreenWrap script to the spaceship:

Screen Shot 2015-08-05 at 11.11.56 AM

You’ll notice that this script has a field named Renderers, which takes an array of Skinned Mesh Renderers, that is, the geometry that creates a model. If a renderer isn’t onscreen, then it teleports the GameObject to another position on screen based on its movement direction and current position.

Expand the Spaceship node until you find the body GameObject, then drag body GameObject into the Renderers field:

Skinned Mesh Renderer

Now run your game. To infinity…and beyond! :]

Screen Wrapping

Introducing Physics

There’s just one major problem. In flying your ship around, you violated one of the laws of physics. No, not Newton’s laws of physics – the laws of Unity physics best-practices.

Unity uses physics for collision detection; if a GameObject does not have a RigidBody component it is considered a static colliders. This means Unity assumes that it will stand still, which allows for huge optimizations when it comes to collision detection. When you move those static objects around, Unity has to recalculate those optimizations, which adds unnecessary CPU time to your game.

To avoid this unnecessary CPU overhead, you’ll need to opt-into the physics engine by adding a Rigidbody Component. You’ve already added Components directly from the menu bar; this time, with the Spaceship still selected in the Hierarchy, click the Add Component button in the Inspector:

Screen Shot 2015-07-30 at 5.12.30 PM

You’ll see a Component menu appear; click Physics then Rigidbody:

Adding Component

This Component also has a lot of options. Is Kinematic is the one you’re interested in. Setting this option means that you want to move a GameObject manually but still want the object to register for collisions. This is useful when you’re moving items via scripts, like you’re doing here, or via animation.

Tick the Is Kinematic checkbox; since you aren’t using gravity in this game, uncheck the Use Gravity checkbox like so:

Screen Shot 2015-08-04 at 5.27.55 PM

The object of this game is to fly around and shoot various types of debris. Naturally, handling collisions will play a large role in this type of game. You’ll need to know when the player shoots an asteroid or when a player crashes into something.

Colliders let you listen to and respond to collisions. There are many types of colliders to use with basic shapes, such as Sphere Collider and Box Collider. There’s even a mesh collider that is based on a 3D model.

Colliders are indicated by a green outline.

Colliders are indicated by a green outline.

In this tutorial, you’ll keep things simple and use a Sphere Collider.

Select the Spaceship in the Hierarchy and click the Add Component button in the Inspector. Click Physics\Sphere Collider, and you’ll see a green circle behind the Spaceship:

Screen Shot 2015-08-04 at 5.42.00 PM

Uh, wait – why is the collider behind the Spaceship? That’s because the actual model of the Spaceship has been offset from the parent when you changed its position earlier.

With the Spaceship selected in the Hierarchy, find your Sphere Collider in the Inspector. Set Center to (0, 4.09, -0.72) and Radius to 3.14. Finally, check the Is Trigger checkbox. Kinematic GameObjects can’t register normal collisions, but they can listen to trigger events from other kinematic objects.

Your Component should look like the following:

Screen-Shot-2015-08-06-at-12.23.09-PM

The collider should now encircle the Spaceship, like so:

Screen Shot 2015-08-04 at 5.59.48 PM

Arming the Cannons

While flying around is fun and all, most players have an overarching desire to fire off a few dozen photon torpedos! :] A script’s been provided for you to help satisfy that craving.

Select the Spaceship in the Hierarchy, then drag the IonCannon script from the Project Browser to the Inspector:

Screen Shot 2015-07-31 at 12.58.45 PM

You’ll notice an Audio Source Component was automatically added to the GameObject. Some scripts require Components; if the Components aren’t found on the GameObject, they’ll be added automatically.

To make your objects play sounds, you need both an Audio Source and an Audio Clip. An Audio Source can be attached to any GameObject, while an Audio Clip is simply an audio file.

Drag the shoot sound from the Sounds folder in the Project Browser into the Fire Sound field:

Screen Shot 2015-08-05 at 11.51.37 AM

You’ll notice that the Ion Cannon script has a Bullet field. Your job is to create a bullet object. Don’t worry if you’re not an artist – a simple sphere will suffice.

Click the Create button in the Hierarchy. From the menu, select 3D Object, then Sphere:

Create Sphere

Select the Sphere in the Hierarchy, then use the Inspector to set scale to (.47,.47,.47). Select the Sphere in the Hierarchy and name it Bullet.

Since your bullet is going to be moving across the scene, it needs to opt-into the physics engine as well. Do you remember what you need to do? Give it a whirl and if you’re stuck, check the spoiler below.

Solution Inside SelectShow

The bullet will need velocity to move, so make sure Is Kinematic is unchecked. Also, make sure Use Gravity is also unchecked.

The bullet will keep traveling even after it flies offscreen, just like your spaceship did originally. Drag the Bullet script from the Project Browser onto the Bullet GameObject. Now, when the bullet flies offscreen, it will automatically be destroyed.

Finally, drag your Bullet object into the Prefab folder of your Project Browser. This creates a Prefab of the bullet, which allows you to create lots of bullets using a script. Pew, pew :]
Now that you have your bullet created, delete the instance of the bullet from the Hierarchy.

Select your Spaceship again, and use the Inspector to add the Bullet Prefab to the Bullet field. The Inspector should look like so:

Bildschirmfoto 2015-09-25 um 20.26.37

Finally, the sky background is somewhat out of place. You’d expect a spaceship to fly in the black void of space, wouldn’t you? :]

Select Main Camera in the Hierarchy and use the Inspector to set Clear Flags to Solid Color and Background Color to black:

Bildschirmfoto 2015-09-25 um 20.27.53

Run your game and press space to blast away with the space key!

Shooting

Putting the Debris in Space Debris

So far you have a ship that can fire, but it would be far more interesting if there were something to shoot at. It’s time for you to add some asteroids to the mix.

Find the rock_d_05.obj file in your downloaded files and drag it into Unity’s Project Browser.

Double-click rock_d_05.obj and name it Asteroid.

This file only contains information about the model itself; it doesn’t have any animations included.

Drag the Asteroid model into the Scene View to create an instance of it. You’ll see that the asteroid is currently plain white:

Screen Shot 2015-07-31 at 4.03.14 PM

While you could make the argument that it’s a fragment of a snow-white comet, your job is to give the asteroid a texture…unless you want to make a career of creating snow-themed games. :]

Expand the Asteroid GameObject and selects its child object named rockLP001. In Inspector you’ll see it has a child GameObject that contains a Mesh Renderer Component. The renderer draws the object to the screen but needs a bit of help to do this – that’s where Materials come into play.

Materials determine the appearance of your objects. For example, a cotton shirt will look much different than a plaster wall would.

Unity achieves this by encapsulating a shader with each material. What’s a shader, you ask? It’s a simple program written in a C-like language that runs on the GPU. A shader can be simple enough to render a texture on a cube, or it can be complex enough to simulate water.

Unity provides many different shaders out of the box, for example to render a sky box, or make an object appear translucent.

Open the Materials folder in the Project Browser, and click the Create button. From the dropdown, select Material and give it the name Asteroid.

The Shader option lets you choose from one of the many pre-packaged shaders. The default Standard Shader has enormous flexibility, so leave it selected.

When an asteroid is hit, you’ll want to fade it out so set the Rendering Mode to Fade.

The Albedo property holds the actual texture; you can tint it by providing a color.

Drag the flint_like_rock_4787 image from the Textures folder in the Project Browser to the Albedo property:

Assigning Material

You’ll notice the Material looks a little too smooth, like it’s been polished:

Screen Shot 2015-07-31 at 9.20.53 PM

Under the Metallic property, you’ll see two sliders. The first slider determines the metallic appearance of the material, while the other determines how rough the texture is.

For now, set the Metallic slider to 0.219 and the Smoothness slider to 0.149. Your Material should now look like this:

Screen Shot 2015-08-03 at 6.59.41 PM

With the Material all configured, you now need to add it to the asteroid. Drag your Asteroid Material from the Project Browser to the Asteroid GameObject in the Scene View:

Adding Asteroid Texture

Awesome! You have an asteroid ready to cause lots of trouble, but first you need to add some behavior to it. Drag the Debris script from the Project Browser in the Scripts folder to the Asteroid.

The Debris script automatically added a Sphere Collider, Rigidbody, and Audio Source to the Asteroid. Set the center of the Sphere Collider to (0.01, -0.09, 0.89) and Radius to 1.49. Check the Is Trigger checkbox as well.

For the Rigidbody, uncheck the Use Gravity checkbox and check the Is Kinematic checkbox.

For the Debris script, set Min Speed to 15, Max Speed to 30 and drag the explosion sound file from the Sounds folder to the Explosion Sound field.

For the transform, of the Asteroid GameObject set the scale to (3.02, 3.02, 3.02).

Adding the Debris script also added the required Renderer Fade script. When a bullet collides with an asteroid, the asteroid should fade away instead of simply disappearing from the screen. The script only requires a fade time, so set Fade Time to 0.5.

As asteroids drift off the screen, they should wrap just like the Spaceship. From the Scripts folder in the Project Browser, drag the ScreenWrap script to the asteroid. Just as you did with the Spaceship, you’ll need to configure the ScreenWrap with the correct renderer.

The Asteroid has a child GameObject named rockLP001. Drag this child GameObject to the Renderers property in the Asteroid GameObject:

Screen Shot 2015-08-05 at 2.25.35 PM

Finally, drag the Asteroid from the Hierarchy to the Prefab folder in the Project Browser. Now that you’re done creating your Asteroid Prefab, delete the Asteroid instance from the Hierarchy.

The last thing you need is a spawn point for all the asteroids. Click the Create button in the Hierarchy and select Create Empty. Name your spawn point Debris.

You’ll want this spawn point to be on the same plane as the player; otherwise, the player will either fly over or under the debris. A good GameObject to use as a reference is missle_R_0 since it’s located in the center of the model.

Drag the Debris GameObject and make it a child of missle_R_0. The transform coordinates of Debris will then be relative to its parent GameObject. To match the coordinates of the parent, set the Debris position to (0, 0, 0). With this little trick you can be sure that Spaceship and Debris are on the same plane.

Next, move the Debris to the buttom of the Hierarchy view where it originally was:

Reset Position

Move the Debris GameObject 15 points to the right; its new position should be (20.0, 1.72, 7.06):

Set Spawn Point

Putting It All Together

Now that you have your ship and and an asteroid configured, you need to bring all the elements together and create a simple game.

Click the Create button in the Hierarchy and select Create Empty. In Inspector click on the name of the new GameObject and name it GameManager.

With the GameManager selected in the Hierarchy, click the Add Component button, select Scripts, then select GameManager. You’ll see that this action added an Audio Source as well. Also the GameManager component has several fields that you need to set that it will use to spawn asteroids.

Start with the Debris field. Make sure the Game Manager is selected in the Hierarchy, and drag the Asteroid Prefab into the Debris field. So what did you do here? The GameManager is responsible for spawning Asteroids. It uses the Debris field to decide which objects to spawn. You told it to use the Asteroid prefab.

Next still on GameManager set the Min Time to 2 and the Max Time to 5. This tells the script how quickly it should spawn asteroids. Set Total Items on Screen to 5, this limit the number of asteroids to 5 so that the player does not get overwhelmed. Drag the Debris GameObject to the Screen Debris field. This specifies that the GameManager should spawn asteroids on the Debris GameObject.

The GameManger component should look like the following:

Screen Shot 2015-08-06 at 12.23.09 PM

Finally, in the Audio Source Component, add background-music to the AudioClip field and make sure to check the loop checkbox.

Screen Shot 2015-08-06 at 12.26.15 PM

Run your game and check out how everything looks:

Playing the Game

Congratulations – you’ve built your very first game in Unity! In later tutorials, you’ll learn about the various subsections of Unity that really let you juice this game up. You’ll also learn how to write your own scripts to take advantage of Unity’s flexible API.

Where to Go From Here?

If you like, you can download the final project from this tutorial.

To learn more about Unity, check out our other tutorials over here. Unity also has a ton of great free content over on YouTube.

As always, keep checking this site for more tutorials in this series. If you have any questions, feel free to reach out to me in the forums below!

Brian Moakley

Brian leads the Unity team at raywenderlich.com and also produces video tutorials on iOS, Unity, and various other topics.

Brian joins Razeware with experience from companies such as ESPN’s online fantasy team and Disney’s Internet Group. When not writing or coding, Brian enjoys story driven first person shooters, reading some great books, and he runs his own "Let's Play" channel on YouTube (vzombie.lol).

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